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Disability Inclusive Language Guidelines

Disability Inclusive Language Guidelines

These guidelines have been prepared by the United Nations Office at Geneva as part of efforts to implement the United Nations Disability Inclusion Strategy, launched in 2019. The Strategy is a key framework for policy and action to mainstream disability inclusion at the United Nations. It is aimed at removing barriers and engaging persons with disabilities in all spheres of work and life in order to achieve sustainable and transformative progress on disability inclusion.

Its indicator 15 on communication, in particular, requires that internal and external communications should be respectful of persons with disabilities. This document contains recommendations that United Nations staff, experts and collaborators can use in their oral and written communications on disability or other subjects, including speeches and presentations, press releases, social media posts , internal communications and other formal and informal documents. It is based on an in-depth study of disability-inclusive language materials and a consultation process with a diverse range of experts, including persons with disabilities.


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Sacred Lives: The Social Impact Of Epilepsy

Sacred lives: An Account of the history, cultural associations and social impact of epilepsy.

Sacred Lives tells the history of epilepsy from ancient times, when the condition was felt to be sacred, to the present day. The initial chapters deal with the early myths and mystique that surrounded it and led to persecution, demonization, incarceration and social rejection. It is only by the nineteenth century that epilepsy becomes accepted by physicians as a physical condition and not a manifestation of madness or the result of a dangerous contagion. The first pioneers of scientific advancement, along with their contributions, are described along with the often serendipitous discovery of effective drug and surgical treatments.

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The Advent Of Epilepsy Directed Neurosurgery

The Advent Of Epilepsy Directed Neurosurgery The Early Pioneers And Who Was First

Efforts to treat epileptic seizures likely date back to primitive, manmade skull openings or trephinations at the site of previous scalp or skull injuries. The purpose may have been the release of “evil spirits,” removal of “cerebral excitement,” and “restoral of bodily and intellectual functions.” With progressive discoveries in brain function over the past 100 to 300 years, the cerebral cortical locations enabling voluntary movements, sensation, and speech have been well delineated. The locations of these functions have become surgical targets for the amelioration of disease processes. Disease entities in particular cerebral-cortical areas may predispose to the onset of focal and or generalized seizures, which secondarily interfere with normal cortical functioning. Modern neuroimaging and electroencephalography usually delineate the location of seizures and often the type of structural pathology. If noneloquent brain regions are involved, open surgical biopsy or removal of only abnormal tissue may be undertaken successfully. A number of the early neurosurgical pioneers in the development of epilepsy surgery are credited and discussed in this article.

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